The United Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), already under severe criticism for violating the requirements of academic peer review and relying on secondary sources, comes under attack again in a new book co-produced by three nonprofit research organizations. According to Climate Change Reconsidered: 2011 Interim Report, natural causes are very likely to be [the] dominant cause of climate change that took place in the twentieth and at the start of the twenty-first centuries. We are not saying anthropogenic greenhouse gases (GHG) cannot produce some warming or have not in the past. Our conclusion is that the evidence shows they are not playing a substantial role. The authors of the new report Craig D. Idso, Robert M. Carter, and S. Fred Singer go on to say the net effect of continued warming and rising carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is most likely to be beneficial to humans, plants, and wildlife.